The Raven Journal poses a question with each emailed newsletter. 

Question: Which of these countries is NOT on the Equator: Brazil, Australia, Kenya, or Indonesia?    
Answer: Australia is not on the Equator.

Question: Hispaniola, the second largest Caribbean island after Cuba, is home to which two countries?
Answer:  Hispaniola is comprised of French-speaking Haiti and Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic.

Question: Which state was the first to ratify the U.S. Constitution?    
Answer: Delaware, in December of 1787, followed by Pennsylvania and New Jersey in that same month.

Question: What is the largest metropolitan area in the Southern Hemisphere? 

Answer: The largest metropolitan area is Sao Paulo (21 million), followed by Jakarta (18 million), and Buenos Aires (12 million). 

Question: Germany was divided into East and West Germany in 1949. In what year was it reunited?
Answer: It was reunited on Unification Day, October 3, 1990.

Question: Canada is divided into 10 provinces and 3 territories. How many of these can you name? 

Answer: The 10 provinces are: British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador (one province), New Brunswick, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Prince Edward Island. The 3 territories are Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavut.

Question: Mt. Etna, a stratovolcano in Italy,  is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. Do you know where in Italy it is located? 

Answer: It is on the northeastern side of the island of Sicily.

In the Near East and northern Africa, the term wadi means: a. oasis,  b. valley,  c. plateau,  d. mountain peak.

Answer - Wadi means valley, and in some cases, it may refer to a dry riverbed that occasionally fills with water during a heavy rainy season.

Question: What is a narrow landform, with water on both sides, connecting two larger land areas called?

Answer: An isthmus.

Question: With which six states does Idaho share a border?

Answer: Idaho shares its border with Washington and Oregon to the west, Montana and Wyoming to the east (and southeast), and Nevada and Utah to the south

Question: Which river flows through 10 countries, more  than any other river in the world?  

Answer: The Danube River originates in Germany and flows about 1,670 miles through or touches the border of Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, and Moldova before emptying into the Black Sea.

Question: The highest capital city in the western hemisphere is 11,942'. Can you name the capital and the country?
Answer: At 11,942' La Paz is the capital, and Bolivia is the country.

Question: Aristotle referred to what weather condition as "the dry sighs of the breathing Earth"?
Answer: Aristotle was referring to the wind.

Question: What is the name of a crater-like basin of a volcano, formed by the cone's collapse, or by an explosion (or eruption)?
Answer: It is called a caldera.

Question: Which state was admitted to the Union on October 31, 1864?

Answer:  That state is Nevada.

Question: What is the most abundant element in the earth's crust?  
Answer: The most abundant element in the earth's crust is oxygen. 

What  country is about 2,670 miles long, yet no wider (east/west) than 217 miles?  

Answer: That South American country is Chile

Question: What is the only continent in all four hemispheres (northern, southern, eastern, and western)? 
Answer: The only continent in all four hemispheres (northern, southern, eastern, and western) is Africa. 

Question: In what year were the residents of Washington, D.C. granted the right to vote in presidential elections?
Answer: The passage of the 23rd amendment in 1961 granted the right to vote in presidential elections to residents of Washington, D.C.

Question: Which two states each have 8 National Parks?  
Answer: Alaska and California each have 8 National Parks.

Question: What is the largest island in the world?
Answer: The largest island in the world is Greenland, followed by New Guinea, Borneo, and Madagascar.

Question: In which states does the Appalachian Trail begin and end?
Answer: The Appalachian Trail (approximately 2,190 miles long)  travels through 14 states, beginning in Georgia and  ending in Maine.

Question: Can you name a canal whose construction began in Rome?
Answer: A canal whose construction began in Rome, New York, was the Erie Canal.

Question: What is the newest country in the world?
Answer: The Republic of South Sudan became independent from the African country of Sudan in 2011.

Question: What is the southernmost place in the 50 states with a population over 25,000?

Answer: The southernmost place is Hilo, Hawaii.

Question: Where is the pole of inaccessibility in North America?

Answer: The pole of inaccessibility (location that is the most challenging to reach due to its remoteness from geographical features that could provide access) in North America is about 7 miles north of Allen, South Dakota.

The hottest, lowest in elevation, and driest places recorded in North America are in the same area in which US state?

Answer: California's Death Valley:1. On July 10, 1913, a record high 134° F was recorded 2. Badwater Basin in Death Valley is 282' below sea level 3. With several mountain ranges between Death Valley and the ocean, it lies in a severe rain shadow and receives an annual rainfall of about 1.5".

What is the state with the largest amount of land (not water and land)  entirely east of the Mississippi River?

Answer - Georgia is the largest state entirely east of the Mississippi River in land area, although Michigan is the largest if water is included in size.

Which way does the earth rotate around its axis?
Answer - The earth rotates west to east or counterclockwise when viewed from the North Pole.

What is the only state flag in the United States that is not rectangular?

Answer - The only state flag in the United States that is not rectangular is the state flag of Ohio

Can you name the original 13 Colonies?

Answer - As they are commonly referred to today, the 13 Original colonies are: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.

Where is the longest artificially created waterway (canal) in the world?
Answer - Begun in the 5th century BC and still in use today, the 1,104 mile long Grand Canal in China is the longest artificially created waterway in the world.

How many of the 54* countries in Africa are in the African Union?

Answer - All 54* countries in Africa are in the African Union

*This includes all internationally recognized territories and states on the continent by the UN and the African Union.

Which is the largest Scandinavian country in square miles?

Answer - At 173,860 square miles, Sweden is the largest. Norway is second with 148,718, and Denmark is third at 16,576.

Which states have the lowest and the highest average rainfall per year?

Answer - Hawaii has the highest at 63.70", and Nevada has the lowest at 9.54".

What do the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn represent?

Answer - According to Wikipedia - “The Tropic of Cancer is currently 23°26′13.3″ north of the Equator. It is the most northerly circle of latitude on the Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead.  The Tropic of Capricorn is 23° 26′ 22″ south of the Equator. It marks the most southerly latitude at which the sun can appear directly overhead.”

Which state is home to the highest point (6,684') east of the Mississippi River?

Answer - Located in the Appalachian Mountains in North Carolina, Mount Mitchell is the highest US mountain east of the Mississippi River.

What is the course or direction of flow of most Russian rivers?

Answer -  Most Russian rivers flow north, eventually into the Arctic Ocean.

What is the longest mountain range on the earth?

Answer - The mid-ocean ridges of the world are connected and form a
continuous mountain range over 40,000 miles long. The world's longest
above-ground mountain range is the Andes (4,300 miles long)

Which state has the highest mean elevation, and which state has the lowest mean elevation?

Answer:  Colorado has the highest mean elevation (6,800'), and Delaware has the lowest (60').

The town of Rugby in which state is considered to be the "Geographic Center of the North  American Continent"?

Answer: North Dakota   

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